Mandarin orange cultivation 2021



Mandarin orange

Mandarin orange cultivation 2021
Mandarin orange cultivation 2021



Mandarin orange is the most important commercial fruit crop of the Northeastern region. It is well

known for its quality fruits in the market of the Northeastern region.

Cultivar: Khasi Mandarin

Mandarin orange Soil and Climate



Mandarins have adapted to wide climatic conditions across India and are grown commercially in cool and high rainfall areas of the north-eastern region as well as the tropical humid climate of central India. Mandarins tolerate extremely high temperatures of 44-45 Degree Celsius during April–May and low temperatures of 6-10 Degree Celsius in December- January in central India.




Well-drained medium-deep soil is to be
selected for the orchard. Soil having pH of 5.5 to
6.5 is considered the most favorable.Mandarin thrives well in sub-tropical to semi temperate climates up to 1000msl. It
requires high humidity, warm summer, and Propagation






Layout preparation and pit making
Layout preparation and pit making



Mandarin orange Layout preparation and pit making


Pit preparation
The size of the pit is 0.75 x 0.75 x 0.75 m and the pit refilled with upper 30 cm soil along
with 15-20 kg FYM, l00g urea, l00g MOP, 300g SSP, and 50g Chlorpyriphos dust or granule.
The pits are filled about 15 cm above the ground level.
Spacing
The spacing between the two plants should be 5 x 5 m apart.
Planting time
The best time of planting is June to August. If there is no rain after planting, light
irrigation should be given. Bud/graft union should be kept at least 15 cm above the ground
level.


Generally, spacing of 6x6m or 5x5 m is recommended for planting in the square system which provides plant density of 275 and 400 plants per ha, respectively. Nowadays there is a trend of high-density planting and mandarin and Kinnow growers are preferring 20 fit by 10 fit (row to row 20 fit and plant to plant 10fit) spacing accommodating 550 plants per ha that doubles the plant density and consequent yield. Some growers have already started high-density planting.


The higher yields are due to restriction in root growth that restricts vegetative growth and increases flowering and fruiting. Close spacing requires higher initial costs, regular pruning, and additional plant protection. But close spacing also gives higher returns in the initial years. Earlier research has shown that up to the age of 15 years, high-density plantation gives good returns and studies show that after 12-15 years, the benefit: cost ratio starts to decline due to overgrowth of trees and increased costs.


Mandarin orange Promising Rootstock for Mandarin orange :


An exotic rootstock Alemow (Citrus macrophylla Wester) was found to be the most promising rootstock for mandarin under black clay soils of central India condition. The rootstock Alemow produced maximum fruit yield(21.t/ha) with a medium canopy of mandarin whereas conventional rootstock rough lemon and Rangpur lime yielded only 10 t/ha. The highest nutrient uptake of all the macro and micro(except Cu) was recorded with this rootstock.


Allow showed as the most potent rootstock for mandarin having all the promising horticultural traits will go a long way in imparting not only production sustainability but improved orchard life as well in addition to fitting this rootstock under high-density orcharding.


Mandarin orange Promising Rangpur lime and rough lemon rootstock strains


Among Rangpur lime, a rootstock strain Rangpur lime (Brazillian) produced maximum fruit yield(15.61t/ha) than the conventional Rangpur lime strain whereas for rough lemon a strain 14-9-13 and Jullandhary that resulted from higher fruit yield (14.48 &14.08t/ha resp.) with 100% tree survival after 18years of tree life.


Mandarin orange Manure and Fertilizer


Depending upon the age of the tree, the following manure and fertilizer schedule is
followed
Micronutrients like Zinc, Manganese, Copper, Iron, and boron should be 50-200 ppm, 50-270ppm, 10-55 ppm, 125-200 ppm, and 100-200 ppm in the leaves. The leaf nutrient levels vary in different mandarin cultivars in the given range as above for good to very good yields.


Farmyard manure (FYM) is applied by mixing in the soil in the plant basin before the monsoon. Ten kg of well-decomposed FYM is applied to a one-year-old plant per year while it is 20, 30, 40, and 50 kg for the 2,3,4, and 5-year-old plants. Traditionally, in soil application, nitrogen is given in three split doses (1/3 dose before flowering, 1/3 dose two months after fruit set, and 1/3 four months after fruit set).


Phosphorus and potash are given before flowering by mixing superphosphate and muriate of potash in soil. In soil with high calcium carbonate content, ammonium sulfate should be used in place of urea.


Age of plant N P²O⁵ K₂O


1year 100 50 60


2year 200 100 120


3year 350 150 180


4year 480 160 240


5year & above 600 200 300


Micronutrients are best applied through foliar application when leaves are fully expanded after a new flush. Mandarin orange put forth new flush in February- March, June-July, and October, and therefore sprays are generally given in April-May and July-August. For soil application chelated forms of zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, and ferrous sulfate are preferred @100g/plant before flowering. For foliar application, 2.5g ZnSO₄ per liter of water (0.25%), and 2.0 g FeSO₄ per liter of water (0.2%) should be taken.


The addition of urea @10g per liter of water (1%) in the above solutions increases micronutrient absorption. Similarly, MnSO₄ and Borax can be used @2.5 g/litre and 1.0g per liter of water, respectively, if need to be sprayed.


For mandarin, keeping in view high yields, 800 g N, 300 g P²O⁵ and 600 g K₂O along with 50 kg FYM plus 7.5 kg Neem cake has been recommended for the full-grown tree. Apart from this, 500 g vascular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) + 100 g phosphorus solubilizing bacteria + 100 g Azospirillium + 100 g Trichoderma harzianum has given good results. The traditional application method is to apply all doses of organic manure at the time of breaking moisture stress.


Recent studies have shown that vermicompost improves fruiting and fruit quality and some part of farmyard manure (like 25-50%) can be replaced with vermicompost depending on the availability of vermicompost.


Microbial agents like plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria have also improved nutrient availability and this recommended dose of chemical fertilizer can be reduced by 25%. Microbial cultures of Azospirillium and Trichoderma can be used @100g each mixed with vermicompost in the soil just before the monsoon.


Mandarin orange Irrigation



Irrigations are to be given only during dry periods, the first being at planting time,
subsequent irrigations can be given at 15-20 days intervals from December to March.
Intercultural operation
Weeding should be done frequently at a monthly interval, mulching with paddy straw/
farm grass or black polythene can also use to control weeds.


mandarin orange Intercropping





Additional income can be obtained by growing suitable intercrops such as French bean, rice bean, cowpea, black gram, and other vegetable crops from mandarin orchards during the pre-bearing stage (1-5 years).

Control of fruit drop






Control of fruit drop can be achieved by spraying with 2,4-D or GA3 @15 mg/L + Urea (10 g/L) +Benomyl(1glL) in April, May, and September or Spraying of Planofix @ 1 mll5 L of water in the month of March-April and August-September to minimize the fruit drop.

Insect/Pests



Leaf miner: Caterpillars feed on newly emerged leaf tissues forming zigzag a shrinking streak like galleries. Citrus scale: All parts except roots, infested by scales. Due to the attack the leaves turn yellow, bristle-like, and fall off. Fruits mottled and shriveled shoots and twigs withered.


Aphid: Nymphs and adults suck the sap from newly emerged leaves, tender parts, and flowers. Mealybug: The nymphs and adults suck the sap from plants. Monocrotophos@ 2.5 g/ L of water or Dimethoate (Roger) @ 1.5 rnl/L of water can effectively control these insects.


Lemon butterfly: Caterpillars feed on leaves, defoliate the plants, very serious in the nursery. It can be controlled easily by handpicking and killing of larvae as well spraying of Chlorpyriphos@ 2 ml/l. Citrus Trunk borer: Grubs bore and feed on the bark, making tunnels inside the trunk.


To kill the trunk borer grubs, clean the bored hole of the infested plant with iron wire, and insert a cotton swab soaked in Dichlorvos/ petrol or inject 5 ml of Dichlorvos (2.5 ml liter) or petrol and plug with mud. Collection and destruction of trunk borer adults during May-June by shaking the branches 2-3 times at 10 days interval may also help in controlling the pest


population.

Diseases


Damping-off: Cotyledons of newly emerged seedling rotted near the ground. Spraying and soil drenching with Bavistin@ 2.5g/liter of water are effectively control the disease. Powdery mildew: A whitish powdery growth is visible on young leaves and green parts. Spraying of Sulfex@ 2.5 liter of water during the flush period is recommended to control the disease.


Scab: The corky lesion on fruits, leaves, and young branches identifies the disease. To control the scab, spraying of Bavistin@ 2g/liter of water in April, June, and September is recommended. Twig blight: The plant exhibits drying of twigs and small branches from the growing tips.


The affected portion should be cut and pasted with Bordeaux paste. Spraying with 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Copper oxychloride@ 2.5 g/L found effective. Phytophthora rot: The first indication of the disease is the exudation of gum from the bark of the stem. The bark cracks open and in the later stage dries up.


Drenching of root with 1 % potassium permanganate solution followed by 1 % Bordeaux mixture may save the plant from declining.

Harvesting and yield



Fruits should be harvested when they attain full size, develop attractive color with a TSS of more than 9 0Brix. Fruits are ready for harvesting during the month of November-December. From a 6-year-old tree, about fruits may be harvested

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